• 周六. 3月 2nd, 2024

    学位英语:四、被动语态

    root

    7月 13, 2020 #学位英语, #语法

    (I)被动语态的构成。被动语态的形式是由“助动词be+动词的过去分词”构成。助动词be随着主语的人称,数,时态和语气的不同而变化。各种时态的被动语态形式如下:

    1.一般现在时am/is/are+V(p.p)人们利用电能运转机器。

    People use electricity to run machines. Electricity is used to run machines.

    Is electricity used to run machines? Yes, it is . / No, it isn’t.

    2.一般过去时was/were + V(p.p)昨天我们在山坡上种了许多树。Many trees were planted on the hill yesterday.

    3.一般将来时will/shall +be+V(p.p)下星期我们将举行一场运动会。A sports meeting will be held next week.

    4.过去将来时should/would +be+V(p.p) 他告诉我们人们将在他家乡建一个大水坝。We were told that a big reservoir would be built in his hometown.

    5.现在进行时am/is/are +being+V(p.p). 他正在油漆房子。He is painting the house. A house is being painted. Is the house being painted? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t .

    6.过去进行时was/were +being+V(p.p)当我进厨房时,她正在做蛋糕。A cake was being made when I came into the kitchen.

    7.现在完成时have/has +been+V(p.p)他已经结束工作了。He has finished his work. His work has been finished.

    8.过去完成时had +been+V(p.p) 到上个月为止,他们已经把这本书翻译成了英语。The book had been translated into English by the end of last month.

    9.将来完成时will have +been+V(p.p). 2,000 words will have been learned by the end of next year.

    注:

    1. 含有情态动词的谓语变成被动语态时,用“情态动词+be+V(p.p)”构成。如:The machine must be operated with care.

    2.含有”be going to”,”be to”等结构的谓语,变成被动语态时,分别用”be going to +be +V(p.p)”和“be to +be+V(p.p)”。如: The problem is going to be discussed at the meeting.

    (II)由动词短语形成的被动语态: 一般情况下,只有及物动词才能跟宾语,而不及物动词不能跟宾语,所以只有及物动词才有被动语态,不及物动词则没有被动语态。但有些不及物动词后面跟上介词或副词后,变成一个动词短语,相当于一个及物动词,就可以形成被动语态。

    约翰打开了收音机。John turned on the radio. The radio was turned on.

    奶奶照看我姐姐。Grandma takes care of my sister. My sister is taken care of by Grandma.

    注:千万不要遗漏介词或副词。

    难点释疑:

    主动形式表被动意义。在下列情况中,谓语形式是主动的,但具有被动的含义。

    The food tastes delicious.这种食物尝起来很可口。

    The idea sounds good.这个主意听起来不错。

    The apples sell well.这些苹果很好卖。

    The clothes wash well.这些衣服很好洗。

    一些固定句型表示被动含义。

    a. be worth doing sth The film is well worth seeing.这部电影很值得一看。

    b. have/ get sb/sth done have作使役动词没有被动语态,但可用这种结构表被动或使役。I had my watch stolen.我的手表被偷了。

    c. sth need/want/require doing=sth need /want/require to be done The room needs cleaning.=The room needs to be cleaned.这间房屋需要打扫。

    root

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