• 周日. 6 月 16th, 2024

    英语基础语法入门

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    9 月 2, 2020 #基础语法入门
    第十三讲 形容词
    
    (1) 形容词通常形容人或事物的状态,性质,大小等。通常用在名词前,be动词后。
    beautiful - the beautiful girl
    The girl is beautiful.
    
    (2) The+形容词=复数名称, 表示一类。 后面的动词使用复数
    old --- the old
    young -- the young
    The old need more care than the young.
    
    练习
    1. She is a (good) student.
    她是一个好学生
    2. This bike is (expansive).
    这辆自行车很贵
    3. ( The rich) sometimes complain their empty life.
    富人有时抱怨他们空虚的生活.
    
    第十四讲 副词
    
    (1) 副词可以修饰动词,形容词,其它副词及其他结构.
    He runs fast.
    She is very beautiful.
    The work very hard.
    
    副词的位置:
    1) 根据情况,放在助动词之后,实意动词之前或之后。
    2)形容词之前,其它副词之前或之后。
    3)多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后
    He speaks very fast.
    They have already left
    They have already been repaired.
    
    (2) 常用的频度副词(always, usually, often, sometimes, never...)的位置通常放在一般动词前面,be动词后面, 助动词和实意动词之间。
    They always come early
    Sam often writes homework at 7:00
    
    练习
    1. Please write the word(slowly)
    2. They ( sometimes ) come here
    3. The tree is (very) tall.
    
    第十五讲 不定量表达法(1)
    
    不定量表达法:some any most every all
    (1) some, any 都表示“一些” 
    some主要用于肯定句,希望得到肯定回答时,也可用在疑问句中,any主要用在否定和疑问句中。
    I'd been expecting some letters the whole morning, but there weren't any for me
    
    (2) most作形容词时表示大部分的, 后面接复数名词.
    Most people here are from China.
    
    (3) every表示“第一个,所有” 后面接单数名词
    Every one likes the film.
    
    (4) all 表示“所有”, 后面接可数名词复数, 不可数名词单数。
    All the cars are parked in the parking lot.
    All the coffee is served on time.
    
    练习
    1. (some) boys went camping yesterday.
    一些
    2 (All) the children like to play footall
    所有的
    3 (Most) teachers want to work here 
    大多数
    
    第十六讲 不定量表达法(2)
    
    (1) both表示两者都, 可作形容词, 代词和副词, either是两者之一, neither是两者都不.
    Both his eyes were severely burned.
    There are trees on either side of the streat
    Neither answer is correct.
    
    (2) many修饰可数名词, 表示“许多”, 
    much修饰不可数名词,表示“许多”,  
    a lot of [lots of], plenty of 均可修饰可数和不可数名词
    many books
    much water
    a lot of / lots of books/water
    
    练习
    1。 (Both)the hands are washed
    两个都
    2。Xiaowang drank ( much/a lot of ) coffee last night.
    很多
    
    第十七讲  不定量表达法(3)
    
    (1) a few, 为肯定含义“几个”
    few, 不否定含义“没几个”
    以上两个词均和可数名词连用。
    后边都加可数名词的复数形式
    
    A few books are put into the box.
    Few books are put into the box.
    
    (2) a little 为肯定含义“一点儿”
    little 为否定含义“ 没多点”
    以上两个词均可和不可数名词连用。
    
    There is a little water in the bottle.
    There is little water in the bottle.
    
    (3) none和no one的意思相同, 主要作代词, 翻译为“一个也不, 一点也不”, 用法稍有区别。
    1)none可以接of短语, 动词可用单数也可用复数
    2)  no one 不能接of短语,动词只能用单数
    No one knows the answer.
    None of us have (has) arrived.
    
    练习:
    (A few ) books are put into the box.
    (几本)
    There is (  a little ) water in the bottle.
    一点儿
    ( None ) of us have(has) arrived
    没有一个
    
    
    第十八讲  There be Here be句型
    
    (1)There/Here+(be)根据上下文,有多种翻译方法, 可以翻译成“有”, “是”, be动词根据后面的名词有单复数变化
    There be 翻译成有
    Here be 翻译成 是
    
    There is a book on the bookshelf.
    There are some books on the bookshelf.
    Here is the bus stop.
    Here are your books.
    
    练习:
    1。(There is ) a lot of water in the bottle.
    有
    2。 (Here is) your car.
    这是
    3。 (There are  ) many students in the room.
    有
    
    第十九讲  一般现在时和现在进行时
    
    (1)一般现在时,表示通常性、规律性、习惯性的状态或者动作。主语是单数第三人称时,动词有单三的变化,主语非第三人称单数时, 动词为原形。
    1. They often get up at 7:00.
    2. He often gets up at 7:00.
    
    一般现在时, 动词的单三变化:
    1)  在动词尾直接加s, 如: play-plays
    2) 以字母s, x, ch或o结尾的动词加-es,如: guess-guesses
    3) 以辅音字母+y结尾的动词, 先变y为i, 再加-es, 如: study-studies
    
    一般现在时否定和疑问句用do, does帮助构成
    1. He doesn't like the car.
    2. - Does he like the car?
       - Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't
    
    (2) 现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作。 句中通常有now等时间副词呼应,基本构成形式为be+doing.
    1. They are watching TV
    2. He is watching TV
    3. I am watching TV.
    
    动词现在分词的变化规则:
    1。 一般情况下,直接在动词后加-ing 如: work--working
    2. 动词以不发音的-e结尾, 要去e加ing 如 take-taking
    3. 重读闭音节的动词,要双写词尾字母,再加-ing, 如cut -- cutting
    4. 以-ie结尾的动词。变y再加-ing 如:lie--lying
    
    现在进行时变否定句和疑问句时,将be动词否定或提前。
    1. They aren't watching TV
    Are they watching TV?
    2. He isn't watching TV.
    Is he watching TV?
    3. Am I watching TV?
    Yes, you are, No, you aren't.
    
    练习:
    1。 He works very late every day.
    2. - Do you study English yourself?
       - Yes, I do.
    3. They are playing soccer now.
    
    
    第二十讲 一般过去时和过去进行时
    
    (1) 一般过去时表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态,过去习惯性,经常性的行为
    基本结构: 主语+动词过去式+其他,一般动词在动词后面加ed, 还有一些不规则动词不规则变化 
    play -- played   come --- came
    1. He worked very hard last night
    2. They came here by car.
    
    动词一般过去时变化规则:
    <1> 一般在动词后加-ed 如 play---played
    <2> 在以字母e结尾的动词后,只加-d  如 like-- liked
    <3> 在以“辅音字母+y"结尾的动词后。改y为i 再加--ed, 如: supply--supplied
    <4> 在以重读闭音节结尾且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后, 双写最后一个辅音字母再加-ed 如plan--planned
    
    (2)过去进行时表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内进行或发生的动作, 其形式为was / were + doing
    1. They were waiting for you
    2. He was talking with his friends just now.
    
    练习
    1。 They __want__ (go) swimming
    2. Sam _was watching__ (watch) TV at 7:00 last night.
    
    第二十一讲 将来时
    
    (1) 一般将来时表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态,或将来某一段时间内经常发生的动作或状态。常常和表示将来的时间状语连用
    如 tomorrow
         next week
         in the future
    (2) “助动词will或shall+动词原形"表示将来必生的事情
    1。They will go to Shanghai by ship tomorrow    
    2. We shall leave for Shanghai next month
    
    (3)  be going to +动词原形  用来表示近期或事先考虑过的将要发生的动作以及已有迹像表明必将发生某事, 意为打算: 就要
    They are going to play football this afternoon
    She is going to learn French next year.
    
    (4) be doing 表示位置转移的动词
    如: go,come, leave, start, arrive可用现在进行时表将来时。
    1. They are leaving for Japan.
    2. She is arriving tomorrow.
    
    练习
    1。They _are coming__ (come) here soon.
    2. Sam __is going to learn__ (learn) Chinese next month.
    3. Peter and Mike _will finish__ (finish) the job tomorrow morning
    
    第二十二 讲 完成时
    1. 现在完成时 have+p.p. 动作过去发生,已经完成,对现在造成影响或后果。动作可能还会持续,可使用的时间状语为
    already已经   yet 还
    1. They have already arrived in Shanghai
    2. She has played soccer for 3 hours
    3. she hasn't finnished the homework yet.
    
    2. 过去完成时(had+p.p.)表示句中的动作发生在过去之前,即过去的过去。已经完成,对过去造成了一定的影响或后果
    1 They had arrived in Shanghai
    2. She had played soccer for 3 hours.
    3 They hadn't finished the work yet.
    
    练习
    1. He   has stopped the car outside
    2. she hasn't been to Sichuang yet.
    3. Have they planned to stay here?
    
    第二十三讲 动词用法
    
    动词根据功能  分为四类
    实意动词(Notional Verb)  系动词(Link Verb)
    助动词 (Auxiliary Verb)  情态动词(model Verb)
    
    (1) 动词有数量和时态的变化,时态通常有三大时态: 现在, 过去和将来时。
    (2) 根据动作进行的状态可分为: 一般时, 进行时和完成时。
    (3) 使用动词时通常将(1)和(2)结合,例如: 一般现在时,过去进行时。。。
    1. He goes to school every day
    2. He went to hospital last night.
    
    动词形态变化总结
    
    动词原形		单三		现在分词		过去式		过去分词	
    play			plays	playing		played		played
    have		has		having		had			had	
    go			goes	going		went			gone
    
    第二十四讲 情态动词1  
    can / could /  may / might
    (1) can / could 表示能力,用be able to 代替can/could 现在/ 过去的能力, 客观可能性(can的可能性大)表示请求和允许
    1). He can/ could/is able to swim
    2)  He can/could come tomorrow
    3) Can/could i stay here?
    
    (2) may / might 表示可能性,may的可能性大  请求,允许, might更委婉
    口语中常用的回答
    --Yes, please
    -- No, you can't/ mustn't (禁止, 不准)
    1) He may/might come here by bus.
    2) --May/might I join you?
        -- Yes, please / No, you can't / No, you mustn't
    
    练习:
    1.She _could_ speak French before
       but now she__can't_.
    2. -_Might__ I come in?
       -Yes, please.
    
    第二十五讲  情态动词2
    
    (1) must / have to 表示必须,必要。
    (must表示主观多一些,而have to 则表示客观多一些)
    have to 有时态和数量的变化。
    must和have to 二者的否定意义不大相同。
    如:  You mustn't go 你不准去。
    You don't have to go  你不必去。
    1. You must get up early.
    2. It's going to rain, I have to go home now.
    
    (2) Should表示劝告, 建议, 命令, 其同义词是ought to; should强调主观看法, 而ought to 强调客观要求。 在疑问句中,通常用should代替ought to 
    1. You should/ought to do the job right now
    2. Should they stay here now?
    
    练习
    1。 I _must/ have to ___(必须) go and see my mother in hospital tomorrow.
    2. You __should / ought to _ (应该) work harder  than that.
    
    第二十六讲 情态动词3
    need/don't have to 
    
    (1) need: “需要”
    a 情态动词
    b. 实义动词,有第三人称单数和时态的变化,后面可带to的不定式
    
    情态动词
    1. He need come here early
    2. He needn't come here early.
    3. --Need he come here early?
       -- Yes, he need / No, he needn't
    
    实意动词
    1. He needs to come here early.
    2. He doesn't need to come here early.
    3. -- Does he need to come here early
       --- Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't
    
    (2) 回答must和have to 的提问句时,否定式使用 needn't, don't have to等回答方式。
    1. -- Must I come here early tomorrow?
    2. -- No, you needn't / don't have to 
    
    练习
    1。 You __needn't_  do it again.
    你不需要重复做了
    2. He _needn't__ worry about it
    这件事他无需担心
    3. _Does__ he need to do homework first?
    他需要先做作业吗?
    
    第二十七讲 情态动词 4  had better / would rather  接动词原形
    
    (1) had better表示“最好做某事” had虽然是过去式,但不表征过去, better后面接动词原形
    1。 He had better eat more.
    2. You'd better finish it right now.
    
    (2) would rather 表示“宁愿,宁可,最好, 还是。。。。为好”  语感上比"had better"要轻
    1. You would rather deal with it now
    
    (3) 否定形式分别为
    had better not + 动词原形
    would rather not + 动词原形 
    1. He had better not eat more.
    2. You would rather not deal with it now.
    
    练习
    1. You __ had better __ stay here.
    2. I __ would rather __ not say it.
    
    第二十八讲 情态动词5  used to +v / would + v
    
    (1) Used to,  would表示习惯性动作, 可翻译为“过去常常。。”
    a. used to 可指过去的状态或情况 would则不能
    The novel used to be popular.
    
    b. Would表示反复发生的动作。 如果某一动作没有反复性,就不能用would, 只能用used to
    1. He would practise English every week
    2. I used to live in Beijing.
    
    c. Used to 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态现在已经结束, would是表示可能再发生
    1. People used to believe that the earth was flat
    2. He would go to the park as soon as he was free .
    
    练习 
    1. The window _used to __  be open
    2. They _would_  gather together every week.
    3. Sam _used to _  play golf but  he doesn't now.
    
    	
    第二十九讲 情态动词否定和疑问
    
    (1) 情态动词的否定  情态动词+not+动词原形
    1. He can't sing an English song.
    2. He may not know her
    3. He mustn't go there  他不准去那儿
    4. He doesn't have to go there
    
    (2) 使用情态动词进行提问, 情态动词+主语+v 原形
    
    1. - Can he sing an English song?
        - Yes, he can. /  No, he can't
    2. --Must he go there?
       -- Yes, he must. /  No he needn't 他不需要   /  don't have to 表示不需要
    3. -- Does he have to go there?
       -- Yes, he does  / No, he doesn't
    
    练习 
    1. -- _Can_  I stay here? 
        --- Yes, please.
    2. _Must__she go back now?
       No, she needn't
    3. _Does__he have to get up at 9:00?
    Yes, he does.
    
    第三十讲  情态动词+ have+p.p. 完成时
    
    (1) 情态动词+have+p.p
    a. 表示过去事实
    b. 推测的含义(但助动词should例外)
    1. He can/could have arrived
    2. He may/might have arrived
    3. He must have arrived
    
    (2) should + have + p.p. 本应该...
          needn't have + p.p.  本不需要。。。
    1.He should have arrived.
    2. They should have finished the work
    3. You needn't have done so.
    
    (3) must have p.p.: "准是已经..."
         can't have p.p. "不可能已经..."
    1. He must have arrived.
    2. He can't have arrived.
    
    练习
    1. He _can / could / my / might__ (可能) have arrived
    2. He _must_(准是) have arrived.
    3. You _needn't __ (本不需要) have done so
    4. They __should_ (本应该) have finished the work
    5. He __can't _ (不可能) have arrived.
    
    第三十一讲  被动语态(1) 被动态的构成和含义
    
    (1) 如果主语是动作的承受者,则用动词的被动语态作谓语。
    (2) 被动语态的构成
    be+动词的过去分词(p.p.)... by sb.
    
    他被妈妈带到了美国
    He is taken to America by his mother
    
    (3) 被动语态有各种时态
    1. The information is needed by us.
    2. The book was being read by him
    3. The computer has been used by her
    4. The room will be cleaned.
    5. The computer could have been used by them.
    
    练习 (一个空一个时态)
    1. The information __is needed__ (need). 一般现在时
    2. The book _was read__ (read)  一般过去时
    3. The door has been opened (open).    完成时 
    4. The book __was being read_____(read)
    5. The computer __ had been used__ (use)
    6. The computer __ could have been used_.
    7. The room will be cleaned.
    
    第三十二讲 被动语态2  被动太和情态动词结合
    
    (1) 被动语态也可以和情态动词结合
    can/could + be + 动词过去分词
    may / might
    must/have to
    should /ought to
    had better /would rather
    used to /would
    need + doing / to be + 动词过去分词p.p.
    
    (2) 和情态动词结合的形式
    1. The food could be taken away.
    2. The food might be taken away.
    3. The food must be taken away.
    4. The food should be taken away.
    5. The food needs taking away.  need+doing 表示需要。。。
    6. The food had better be taken away.
    7. Books used to be returned in two days.
    
    练习 
    1. The room  __may___(可能) be cleaned
    2. The door __must__ (必须) be locked.
    3. The house _should_  (应该) be furnished
    4. The tree __ had better __ (最好) water...
    
    第三十三讲  被动语态3  by+行为者  可省略
    
    动作的行为者不分明,或不重要,或上下文中提到了行为者时,"by+行为者“可以省略
    
    1. The information is needed.
    2. The book is being read
    3. The door was opened
    
    练习
    1。 The door _is opened___ (open)
    被打开了
    2. The book _is being read__(正读者) (read)
    3. The computer ___has been used___(use)
    已经被用了
    4. The pencil __had been sharpened_____(sharpen)
    已经被削尖了
    
    第三十四讲  被动语态4  被动语态的疑问句
    (1)被动语态的一般疑问句:助动词+主语+(其它助动词)+动词过去分词~?
    1.  Is the information needed by him?
        Yes, it is/ No, it isn't
    2. Has the computer been used by her?
        Yes, it has. / No, it hasn't
    3. Will the room be cleaned?
        Yes, it will / No, it won't
    
     (2) 被动语态的特殊疑问句:  疑问词+助动词+主语+(其它助动词)+ 动词过去分词?
    1.The information is needed by them. 
      What is needed by them?
    2. The girl is taken to Shanghai.
      Where is the girl taken?
    3. The book has been read three times.
    How many times has the book been read?
    
    练习:
    1。_Is___ the book _being read__(read) by her?  她正在读那本书吗?
    2. _Has_ the computer _been used__ (use) by them?  
    3. How often _is__ the English class _taken__ (take)?  英语课多长时间上一次
    
    第三十五讲 非谓语动词(1)  to+动词原形 vs.  动词原形+ing
    (1) 动词不定式: 由to+动词原形构成。可以做主语,宾语,宾补,定语,表语和状语
    
    主语
    1. ___To get there by bike___ wil take us an hour.
    宾语
    2. The driver failed __to see the car__ in time
    宾补
    3. We believe him __to be guilty(有罪的)__.
    定语
    4. The next train to arrive is from Seoul(首尔)
    表语和状语
    5. My suggestion is __to put off the meeting__.
    6. I come here only __to say goodbye to you__. (目的状语)
    
    (2)"动词原形+ing"可作动名词用,具有动词的特征和变化形式,但在句子中的用法及功能类同名词
    : 在句子可以作主语,宾语,表语,定语,它也可以被副词修饰或者支配宾事。
    1。 __Reading__ is an art.
    2. They went on _walking_ and never stopped _talking_.
    3. Your task is quickly __cleaning the windows.__
    4. This is a __reading__ room.
    
    练习
    1。 _To finish the work___ wil take us an hour (完成这项工作)
    2. I come here __to say goodbye to you__. (和你告别)
    3. __Talking__(说话) is an art.
    
    第三十六讲 非谓语动词2  假主语/真主语    不定式/动名词的否定式
    
    (1) to不定式或动名词可以在主语的位置上,但一般用it代替它作形式主语,这种情况it叫形式主语。
    1) It's a great honor __to be invited__.   被邀请很荣幸
    2) It is no use __crying over spilt milk__. 覆水难收
    
    (2)在宾语的位置上,用it代替它作形式宾语,这种情况it收形式宾语
    1) We think _it_ import __to learn English__. 我们认为学英语很重要
    2) I found _it_ pleasant __walking in the park__. 在公园里走是件乐事。
    
    (3) 对动名词或不定式进行否定时,在不定式或动名词前加not 否定就可以了
    1) He pretended __not to see her___.
    2) He regrets __not joining them__.
    
    练习
    (1) It is no use _crying__(cry) over spilt milk.
    (2) We think it import to learn(learn) English
    (3) He pretended not to see(not see) her.
    
    第三十七讲 非谓语动词3  to不定式表示目的
    
    (1)  int order to + v 表示目的.
    (2)  so as to + v 表示目的
    (3) 由in order to 引导的目的状语,置于句首,句尾均可
    由so as to 引导的目的状语,只能置于句尾
    1. I've written it down  in order to   remember it.   // I've =》  I have的缩写
    2. He shouted(大声喊) and waved (挥手) so as to be noticed.
    
    (4) 它们的否定形式分别在to前加not
    1. I've written it down in order not to forget it.
    2. He said nothing so as not to be noticed.
    
    练习 
    1。 He gets up early  in order to/so as to  (目的是) arrive at school on time.
    2.  He wrote it down   in order not to/ so as not to   (目的是不) forget it.
    
    第三十八讲 非谓语动词4  常见的不定式和动名词 
    
    包含不定式和动名词的一些固定结构
    (1) too ~ to .. : 太....以至于不能...
    The room is too small to live.
    
    (2)  enough + n+ to + v  或   adj + enough+to+v: 足够...可以...
    There is enough food to eat.
    The box is big enough to contain six apples.
    
    (3) On -ing   一....就...
    On seeing the snake. the girl was very frightened.
    
    (4) There is no hope of ~ing: 没希望....
    There is no hope of seeing him.
    
    (5) feel like ~ing 想要...
    I feel like eating ice cream now.
    
    (6) have a hard time ~ing: 做 ~艰难
    They have a hard time solving the problem themselves.
    
    练习
    1. There are enough books  to read   (read)
    2 I feel like drinking   (drink) coffee now.
    3. The room is too small  to live  (live)
    
    第三十九讲 非谓语动词5  现在分词/过去分词, 分词句
    
    (1) v+ing可称之为动名词,也可称之为现在分词
    Writing books is his job.
    He is writing a book.
    
    (2) 动词的p.p.形式可称之为动词的过去分词。用在完成时和被动语态当中,
    He has written the homework
    The homework is written
    
    (3) 分词句是包含现在分词和过去分词的分句。
    The students went out of the classroom, laughing and talking.
    Accompanied by his friend, he went to the railway station.
    
    练习:
    1.He likes drinking (drink) coffee.
    2. The door was locked   (lock)
    3.  Given (give) better attention. the plants could grow better.
    
    第四十讲 原形不定式1   使役动词
    
    (1) 使役动词, 表示 “使/让..." have, make, let做使役动词,构成形式为”have/make/let+宾语+v".
    1. He make me laugh.
    2. I let hime go.
    3. Please have him come here.
    
    (2) get和help都做使役动词, get的使役动词句为" get+宾语+to+v", help的使役动词句为"Help+宾语+(to)+v.
    1. I can't get anyone to do the work properly
    2. I helped him (to) repair the car
    
    (3)  (1)(2)所有使役动词+宾语+过去分词“, 表示”让某物/人被别人....
    1. I must get my hair cut
    2. He couldn't make himself heard
    3. Can you get the work finished in time?
    
    练习:
    1. He made me  laugh    (laugh)
    2. I let him  go  (go)
    3. I must get my hair cut   (cut)
    
    第四十一讲 原形不定式(2) 感官动词
    
    (1) 感官动词 see/watch/observe/notice/hear/smell/taste/feel+宾语+动词原形/现在分词"
    a) +动词原形,表示动作的真实性。
    b) +现在分词,表示动作的连续性,进行性。
    I saw him work in the garden yesterday
    I saw him working in the garden yesterday.
    
    (2) 和使役动词相似, 感官动词后可接过去分词。 “感官动词+宾语+过去分词” 表被动含义
    John saw the man knocked down by the car
    
    练习:
    1. I watched a dog running  (run)  in the garden yesterday.
    2. I heard Sam sent  (send) to the hospital
    
    第四十二讲  假设(1) 只单纯表示条件 
    
    (1)条件状语从句。 用"if"引导条件状语从句,从句为现在时,通常译作“如果。。。
    If you get up early. you will catch up with the train.
    
    (2) If引导的条件状语从句,可以放在句首,也可以放在句尾
    1. If you ask him, he will help you
    2. She will be upset if you fail the exam
    
    练习:
    1. If he runs, he will get  (get) there in time.
    2. The cat scratches  (scratch) you if you pull her tail.
    
    第四十三讲 假设  与现在事实相反的虚拟语气
    
    (1) If从句是一种虚拟的条件或假设,和现在事实相反的。 主从句时态具体如下:
    从句: 动词过去式(be用were)
    主句:would/could/should/might+动词原形
    1. If I were you, I would join them.
    2. She sould come with you if you invited her.
    
    练习:
    1。 If I  know    (know) his telephone number, I would tell   (tell) you
    2. If I  had  (have) any money with me. I  would lend  (lend) you some.
    3. If I  were  (be) you. I  would taken  (take) an umbrella.
    
    第四十四讲 假设(3)  与过去事实相反的虚拟语气
    
    (1) If从句是一种虚拟的条件或假设,和过去事实相反的。
    主从句的时态具体如下:
    从句: had+动词过去分词
    主句: would/could/should/might+have+动词过去分词
    1.If I had got there earlier, I should have met her.
    2. If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake.
    
    练习
    1。 If he had studied (study) harder. he might have passed the exam.
    2. If there had been   (be) a heavy snow, we  should not have gone  (not go) skating.
    3. If I  had got  (get) there earlier, I  would have met  (meet) her.
    
    第四十五讲  假设  wish /  as if + 过去/过去完成时
    
    (1) wish后面的从句,译为"希望..就好了” 是不可能实现的假设。
    a. 与现在事实相反的愿望.I wish I were as tall as you.(一般过去时)
    b. 过去事实相反的愿望   He wished he hadn't said that(过去完成时)
    c. 将来不大可能实现的原望。 I wish it would rain tomorrow. (would/should/could)
    
    (2)as if , 翻译为“看起来好像。。。”
    a. 如果从句表示与现在事实 相反
    You look as if you didn't care
    b. 从句表示与过去事实相反。
    He talks about Rome as if he had been there before
    c. 从句表示与将来事实相反。
    He opened his mouth as if he would say something.
    
    练习:
    1。 I wish I  were  (be) as tall as you 
    2. He talks as if he know   (know) where she was.
    3. I wish it  would rain  (rain) tomorrow
    
    第四十六讲 定语从句(关系代词)  that who, which, whom
    
    定语从句: 在句中做定语, 修饰一个名词或代词, 被修饰的名词, 叫先行词,其后的从句就是
    定语从句,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
    (1) 关系代词,在从句中做一定的成分,代替先行词,起到连接先行词和从句的作用。
    常用关系代词:that, who, which,whom, whose
    
    The girl whom/that I spoke to is my cousin(表姐).
    
    a.先行词是人的话用that, who, whom, whose来引导定语从句。
    whom在从句中作宾语
    who和that在从句中既可作主语又可作宾语 
    
    1。 They are the people that/who were seen yesterday  关系代词作主语
    2. They are the people whom/that/who I saw yesterday. 作宾语
    3. They are the people whose wallets were lost yesterday. 
    
    b. 先行词是动作/事物的话,用which,that, whose来引导定语从句
    which that 在从句中来作主语和宾语 作宾语时可以省略
    1. He came back for the book  which/that  he had forgotten.
    2. He came back for the book which/that  was on the desk
    3. This is the chair whose legs were broken.
    
    指人					指物
    主格		who/that			which/that
    宾格		whom/who/that	which/that
    属格		whose			whose
    
    练习
    1.He was the person  who/that  joined the army that year.
    2. He came back for the book which/that  he bad forgotten.
    3. He is the man whose wife is a teacher
    
    第四十七讲  定语从句(关系副词) when where why
    
    why;用于修饰表示原因的名词  the reason
    We don't know the reason why he didn't show up(出现)
    
    when 修饰表示时间的名词(next week)
    We'll put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may better
    
    where: 修饰表示地点的名词the place
    We don't know the place where he lives.
    
    练习:
    1. He works in a factor __where_ Tv sets are made.
    2. We'll put off the picnic until next week, when the weather may be better
    3. She didn't tell me the reason why she refused the offer
    
    第四十八讲 宾语从句 连词
    
    宾语从句:在句子中起宾语作用的从句
    从属连词:that, if, whether
    连接代词:who, whom, whose, what
    连接副词: when where, why, how
    
    He told me (that) he would go to college the next year.
    
    从属连词: that if whether
    1. He said that he was there yesterday
    2. He doesn't know if/whether he was there.
    
    连接代词, who whom , whose, what
    
    1. Do you know who has won the game?
    2. Do you know whom he likes?
    3. Do you know whose book it is?
    4. Do you know what he is looking at?
    
    连接副词: when where why how
    
    1. He wants to know when the party is
    2. He wants to know where the party is.
    3. He wants to know why they have a party.
    4. He wants to know how they come.
    
    练习:
    1. He doesn't know that/if/whether she is at school.
    2. He wants to know where she is.
    3. He wants to know whether/if/why/when/how  she comes.
    4. He wants to know what she is reading.
    5. He wants to know who book it is
    
    第四十九讲 比较级&最高级1
    
    1. 通常在形容词和副词后面加er est
    hard-harder-the hardest
    2. 词尾是不发音的单音节e时, 加r  st
    nice-nicer-the nicest
    3. 词尾是辅音+y的双音节时,去掉y加ier  iest
    dry -- drier--- the driest
    4. 以一个辅音结尾的重读闭音节时,双写最后一个字母加er  est
    hot hotter the hottest
    5. 多音节和双音节,在形容词和副词前加
    程度加强  more   the most
    程序减弱  less the least
    interesting-- more/less interesting
    the most/the least interesting
    6. 不规则变化 
    good --- better --- the best
    many    more   the most
    
    练习
    high --- higher    the highest
    late --- later ---- the latest
    heavy    heavier    the heaviest
    
    thin  thinner   the thinnest
    
    famous --   more famous      the most famous
    
    litter    less     the least
    
    第五十讲 比较级和最高级
    
    形容词或副词的比较级:表示“比较。。。”
    1. He is taller than his brother.
    2. The book is more expensive than the pen
    3. Her English is better than his.
    
    形容词的最高级: 表示“ 最...
    1. He is the tallest in his class.
    2. The book is the most expensive of the three
    3. Her English is the best among the three.
    
    练习:
    1. The girl is cleverer (clever)
    2. The computer is the most expensive(expensive) among the three
    3. The man is healthier (healthy) than his wife
    

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