• 周五. 3月 1st, 2024

    学位英语:二、词法分析

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    7月 13, 2020 #语法

    (一)构词法

    1.转化法:

    把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法,全国英语等级考试/学位英语最常考的是形容词转化为名词。表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词:

    You should be dressed in black at the funeral.你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。

    I want to write in red.我想用红笔写字。

    某些形容词如old,young,poor,rich,wounded,injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数

    The old in our village are living a happy life.我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。

    2.派生法

    1)前缀

    除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。

    (1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-,il-,im-,in-,ir-,mis-,non-,un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。例如:appear出现→disappear消失,correct正确的→incorrect不正确的,lead带领→mislead领错、误导,stop停下→non-stop不停。

    (2)表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词),anti- (反对;抵抗),auto- (自动), co-(共同),en- (使),inter- (互相),re- (再;又),sub- (下面的;次;小),tele- (强调距离)等。例如:alone单独的 antigas防毒气的 autochart自动图表 cooperate合作 enjoy使高兴 internet互联网 reuse再用 subway地铁 telephone电话

    2)后缀

    英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词,也可加后缀构成新词。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。

    (1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/ -or (从事某事的人),-ese (某地人),-ess (雌性),-ful(一……),-ian (精通……的人),-ist (专业人员),-ment (性质;状态),-ness (性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。例如:differ不同于→difference区别 write写→writer作家 Japan日本→Japanese日本人 act表演→actress女演员→action动作、行为 care细心→caerful仔细的、认真的music音乐→musician音乐家

    (2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词之后),-fy (使……化),-ize (使……成为)。例如:wide→widen加宽 beauty→beautify美化 pure→purify提纯 real→realize意识到 organ→organize组织

    (3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,-able (有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en (多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern (方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less (表示否定),-like(像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y (表示天气)等。例如:nature 自然→natural 自然的 reason 道理→reasonable有道理的 America美国→American美国的 China中国→Chinese中国人的 gold金子→golden金的 east东→eastern东方的 child孩子→childish孩子气的 snow雪→snowy雪的

    (4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s)(主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向)。例如:angry生气的→angrily生气地 to到→towards朝……,east东方→eastward向东

    3.合成法

    1)合成名词

    名词+名词weekend周末

    名词+动词daybreak黎明

    名词+动名词handwriting书法

    名词+介词+名词editor-in-chief总编辑

    动词+名词typewriter打字机动

    名词+名词reading-room阅览室

    现在分词+名词flying-fish飞鱼

    形容词+名词gentleman绅士

    副词+动词outbreak爆发

    2)合成形容词

    名词+形容词snow-white雪白的

    名词+现在分词English-speaking讲英语的

    名词+to+名词face-to-face面对面的

    名词+过去分词man-made人造的

    数词+名词+形容词two-year-old两岁的

    数词+名词+ed five-storeyed五层的

    形容词+名词high-class高级的

    形容词+名词+ed noble-minded高尚的

    形容词+形容词light-blue浅蓝色的

    形容词+现在分词good-looking相貌好看的

    副词+形容词ever-green常青的

    副词+现在分词hard-working勤劳的

    副词+过去分词well-known著名的

    副词+名词fast-food专门提供快餐服务的

    介词+名词downhill下坡的

    3)合成动词

    名词+动词sleep-walk梦游

    形容词+动词white-wash粉刷

    副词+动词overthrow推翻

    4)合成副词

    形容词+名词hotfoot匆忙地

    形容词+副词everywhere到处

    副词+副词however尽管如此

    介词+名词beforehand事先

    介词+副词forever永远

    (二)冠词的基本用法

    1. a用于辅音发音开头的词前,如:a book;an用于元音发音开头的词前,如:an apple,an hour.请区别:a useful machine,an umbrella,a “u”,an “h”。

    2.指上文提到过的人或物,用定冠词the;指世界上独一无二的事物前用定冠词the. 如:the sun,the moon,the earth.

    3.表示人体部位的名词前用the:The mother took the little girl in the hand and patted her on the head.母亲执着小女孩的手,轻轻地拍着她的头。

    4.the用于序数词,表方位的名词和形容词最高级前。the first,the best,in the south.

    5.在复数姓氏前加the,表示××一家人,常看成复数。如:the Browns;用于形容词之前表示一类人或事物:the poor(穷人)、the false(假的东西)

    6.用于乐器名称前play the piano;

    7.不能用定冠词the的几个方面:

    (1)在节日、星期、月份、季节、年等词前不用冠词。如:in summer,in August

    (2)一日三餐和球类运动名不用冠词。如:have breakfast,play football

    (3)一些固定词组中,如:go to bed,go to school,by bus ,at night.

    8.在有些词组中,有冠词和无冠词意思不同,请注意区别:in front of在…前面,in the front of在…范围内的前部 in hospital(生病)住院,in the hospital在医院里。

    (三)名词重点举要

    1 名词复数的不规则变化

    1)由一个词加man 或woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是-men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen.

    2)除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar,two dollars;a meter,two meters.

    3)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:”The Arabian Nights” is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。

    2 复合名词复数形式的构成

    1)通常把-s加在复合名词的中心词上Brother-in-law——brothers-in-law(堂兄弟们、连襟们)、editor in chief——editors in chief(主编们)

    2)将复合名词的后一个词变为复数Boy-friend——boy-friends、tooth-brush——tooth-brushes(牙刷)

    3)两个部分都变为复数,尤其是指性别时Man doctor——men doctors woman teacher——women teachers man writer—men writers

    3 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋a ten-mile walk 十英里路 two-hundred trees 两百棵树a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

    4 名词的格

    语中有些名词可以加“’s”来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:

    a teacher’s book.the boy’s bag 男孩的书包,men’s room 男厕所,the children’s parens孩子的父母。若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加“’”,如:the workers’ struggle 工人的斗争。

    如果两个名词并列,并且分别有’s,则表示“分别有”;只有一个’s,则表示’共有’.例如:

    John’s and Mary’s rooms(两间) John and Mary’s room(一间)

    (四)连词重点用法

    1.表示并列关系的连词有:and,both…and…,not only… but also…和neither…nor…

    1)and的特别用法:

    祈使句后连接and,有条件句作用,此时and=if you…,you’ll…

    Go straight on, and you’ll see the library.==If you go straight on, you will see the library.

    2)both…and…既…也…,(两者)都…

    A.both…and…谓语动词一般用复数。

    Both Jim and Kate are from England.

    B.both…and…否定句表示部分否定。

    Both my father and my mother aren’t doctors.我的父母只有一个人是医生。

    3)neither…nor…:既不…也不…

    neither…nor…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持“人称”和“数”的一致,即采取就近原则。Neither I nor he has seen the play before.

    4)not only…but also…:不但…而且…

    not only…but also…连接两个主语后的谓语动词也遵循就近原则。

    Not only the mother but also the children are ill.

    2.表示转折关系的连词有:but,however,yet,still,while等。

    Mary was a nice girl, but she had one shortcoming.

    Tom got up early, yet he failed to catch the train.

    He was very tired, still he kept on walking.

    Your composition is fairly good, however, there is still some room for improvement.

    Jane is hard working, while her sister is quite lazy.

    3.表示选择关系的并列连词有:or,either…or…,whether… or…等。

    1)or:或、否则

    A:基本用法

    or 表示“或” 的意思,使用于两者之中选择一个的时候。

    —-Is your friend English or American? —-American.

    He doesn’t like dumplings or noodles.

    B:特别用法

    祁使句后连接or,表“如果…,否则…”,有转折的意思,此时or =if you don’t …,you’ll …

    Hurry up, or you’ll be late.=If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late.

    2)either…or…:或者…或者…;不是…就是…;要么…要么…

    A. either…or…连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词靠近哪个主语就与哪个主语保持“人称”和“数”的一致,即就近原则。

    Either you or I am right. Does either she or they like English?

    B. 由either…or…引导的否定句是完全否定。

    She isn’t either a student or a teacher.

    3)whether…or…不管…还是…

    She is always cheerful, whether at home or at school.

    4.表示因果关系的并列连词有:for(因为),so(所以)。

    He is not at school today, for he has a bad cold.

    It was late, so I went home.

    5.引导时间状语从句的从属连词有:before,after,when,while,as,till,until,since,as soon as

    After they had planted their crops, they took a rest.

    We have learned six lessons since he began to teach us.

    As soon as he gets to Beijing, he’ll call me.

    1)as 表示“当……时”,引导一个持续性动作,多用于主从句动作同时发生,强调“一边……一边”。He sang as he walked.

    2)until用法:当主句谓语动词是延续性动词时,主从句都用肯定式,译为“直到……为止”;

    当主句谓语动词是瞬间动词时,主句用否定式,从句用肯定式,即not…until, 译为“直到……才”。

    Mr. Green waited until his children came back.(格林先生一直等到他的孩子们回来)

    Mr. Green didn’t go to bed until his children came back. (格林先生直到他的孩子们回来才睡觉)

    6. 引导条件状语从句的从属连词有:if(如果),unless(除非,如果……不)等。

    If you don’t go soon. you’ll be late.=Unless you go soon, you’ll be late.

    7.引导原因状语从句的从属连词有because,as,since等。

    because“因为”语气最强,回答why提问时只能用because,其引导的从句可放在句首或句末;as“由于”、since“既然”语气不如because强,引导的从句常置于句首;for是并列连词,语气最弱,对前面分句加以解释或补充说明,其引导的分句常置于句末且用逗号隔开。

    He didn’t go to school because he was ill.

    As it was raining, we went there by bus.

    Since everybody is here, let’s begin.

    It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet.

    注意:because与so不能同时使用。

    8.引导让步状语从句的从属连词有:although/though(虽然,尽管),even though/if (即使)

    Although/ Though it is a very young country, it is very rich.

    Even if/ though you were here yesterday, you couldn’t help him.

    注意:although/though 引导的从句不能与but连用,但可与yet,still连用。

    9.引导目的状语从句的从属连词有so that和in order that(以便,为了)等。

    The teacher spoke loudly so that /in order that we could hear him clearly.

    10.引导结果状语从句的从属连词有:so that(结果是)和so/such…that…(如此…以至于)等。

    It was very cold, so that the water in the bowl froze.

    He got there so early that he got a good seat.

    It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it.

    11.引导比较状语从句的连词:as…as…(与…一样),not as/so… as…(不如),than(比)等。

    I know you better than she does.

    He works as carefully as she.

    I can’t run as/so fast as you.

    注意:在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,如果主句是将来时,从句要用一般现在时。

    I’ll go on with the work when I come back tomorrow.

    He won’t come unless he is invited.

    (五)副词、形容词

    1.形容词及其用法

    1)表语形容词只能作表语,这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake等。

    2)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice.

    2.以-ly结尾的形容词

    大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

    3.用形容词表示类别和整体

    1)某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry等。例如:

    The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。

    2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如the British,the English,the French,the Chinese等。例如:

    The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。

    4.形容词与副词的比较级

    常见的双音节或多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级important/ easily more important/ more easily most important/ most easily

    5.as + 形容词或副词原级+ as

    1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as.例如:

    He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

    2)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:

    This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。

    Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。

    3)倍数+ as + adj. + as 倍数+ the … + of.例如:

    This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。

    This bridge is three times the length of that one.

    Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。

    Your room is twice the size of mine.

    6.可修饰比较级的词常用的有a little,rather,much,far,many,等Nanjing is a little/rather/much/far/ hotter than Shanghai.如果后接名词时,much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。

    I have many more books than Tom.

    There is much more water in the south than in the north.

    7. the + 最高级+ 比较范围

    1)形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词the,副词最高级前可不用。例如:

    The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。

    形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示“非常”。例如:

    It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。

    2)by far一般修饰最高级,

    This question is by far the most difficult in this exercise. 这道题是这个练习里最难的。

    注意:最高级的意义有时可以用比较级表示出来。例如:

    Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。

    Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。

    8. 和more有关的词组

    the more…the more… 越……越……。例如:

    The harder you work,the greater progress you’ll make. 越努力,进步越大。

    (六)数词用法举要

    1)倍数表示法

    a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as.例如

    I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。

    b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of…。例如:

    The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。

    c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than…。例如:

    The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year.

    今年比去年粮食产量增加8%.

    2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用

    单数,分母序数词用复数。例如:

    1/3 one-third;3/37 three and three-sevenths.

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